FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES of citizens
- Fundamental Duties were not part of the original Constitution.
- They were added by the 42nd Constitution Amendment Act, 1976.
- They were codified based on the recommendation of Sardar Swaran Singh Committee.
- In 2002, one more Fundamental Duty was added. (to provide opportunities for education to his child or ward between the age of six and fourteen years. 86th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2002.)
- They are applicable only on Citizens of India. (not foreigners)
- They are in Part 4 of the Constitution following the DPSPs.
- They are not justiciable in courts.
- They contain both civic duties and moral duties.
- However, Parliament can enforce them through suitable legislation. (Ex: The Prevention of Insults to National Honor Act (1971) prevents disrespect to the Constitution of India, the National Flag and the National Anthem)
Article 51A. It shall be the duty of every citizen of India—
(a) to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem;
(b) to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom;
(c) to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;
(d) to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;
(e) to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women;
(f) to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;
(g) to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures;
(h) to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform;
(i) to safeguard public property and to abjure violence;
(j) to strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavor and achievement;]